Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Ukrainian Philology and General Linguistics, State Institution Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University
1 Gogol Sq., Starobilsk 92700, Ukraine
Abstract: The article defines the main aspects of the linguocultural studying of dialectal speech and briefly elucidates the essence of each of them. The author argues that according to the sources of dialectological evidence, the carrier of linguistic and cultural information is First of all the lexical composition of dialects and dialectal text, which is evaluated as the space of natural realization of communicative phenomena, as the means of fixation and preservation of important information for researchers.
The differences of the lexical background of the dialects of the studied range were revealed in comparison with other areas of the Ukrainian language continuum in the dialectal text. It demonstrates the differences of semantic layers of equivalent words which are not conditioned by the differences in realities. The lexical background is a phenomenon which borders on language and culture. The spatial differences of the lexical background, in particular the names of plants, are that in some cases, the motivational features of the folk names of plants are the same in different regions in others they are different or more specific and are adopted to the history of the region or the biographies of the dialect carriers. The lexical background of the verbal components of the text often sheds light on the mentality of the dialectal carriers, separates and specifies the peculiarities of their worldview and outlook, which was noticed in the analysis of the stories about the history of the origin of the names of settlements.
The mental traits of dialectal carriers, peculiarities of the lexical background of verbal components of texts, are clearly revealed in the comparative studying of dialectal speech in several habitats, for example, in the studying of zoons. For example, non-motivated zoons of the Slobozhans are mostly the names of people which were used for naming animals or birds, while the immigrants from Lemkivshchyna use the appellate nouns in this case.
It is done much in Ukrainian dialectology to systematize the linguistic cultures of a certain area, to allocate the equivocal vocabulary of the language communities of individual continents, to describe the spatial differences of tokens with symbolic meanings, as the systematic description of thematic groups of the vocabulary of the entire Ukrainian continent or its separate areas has long been a priority trend in dialectological studies.
Keywords: linguoculture, linguistic culture, lexical background, nonequivalent verbal vocabulary, zoons, zoononymy, appellate names, proprial vocabulary.