Journal Ukrainian Language – №3 (71) 2019
Dr. Sci.(Philol.), Professor, Head of the Department of Grammar and Scientific Terminology, Institute of the Ukrainian Language of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
4 Hrushevskyi St., Kyiv 01001, Ukraine
GRADATIONAL COMPOUND SENTENCES IN THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE: STRUCTURE AND SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIATION
Abstract: The paper focuses on the main stages of the concept «gradational compound sentences» formation in modern linguistics, characterizes the status of gradational sentences, their place in the system of complex sentences of the Ukrainian literary language, gives ground for their identification as certain type of compound sentence of closed structure.
The means of explication of the gradation semantic-syntactic relations between clauses of compound sentence are determined, the role of conjugations and lexical meanings of words in the creation of the proper-gradation and gradation-joining relation is determined. On the basis of the research the compound sentences with different degrees of partial asemanticity of the gradational conjunctions are characterized.
The present study develops typology of gradational compound sentences which is based on the nature of the semantic connection between their predicative parts in terms of the actual gradation and gradation-attachment relations and the means of their expression. Gradual compound sentence with pairs of proper-gradational conjugations, in which the second clause of sentence is semantically more significant than the first, is proved to be the core semantic-syntactical and formal-grammatical type. Peripheral to it are two other types of gradation compound sentences with pairs of proper-gradational conjunctions, in which the first arbitrary clause is semantically more significant than the second.
Gradational compound sentences with one gradation-joining conjunction are qualified as sentences of syncretic semantic-syntactic nature, since they simultaneously convey the gradational and connecting semantic-syntactic relation between the second, connected, and the first, basic, independent in syntactic structure and meaning clause; in addition the lexical-semantic filling of the second clause contributes not only to the addition but also to the strengthening of the content of the first one.
Keywords: gradational compound sentences, gradational semantic-syntactic relation, proper-gradational conjugations, lexical meaning of word, semantic-syntactic and formal-syntactic type.
- Beloshapkova, V.A. (1967). Principles оf the classification of paratactic complex
- sentences. Slojnoe predlojenie v sovremennom russkom yazyike. P. 127 – 137. Moskva (in Rus.).
- Beloshapkova, V.A. (1977). Modern Russian. Syntax. Moskva (in Rus.).
- Vykhovanets, I.R. (1993). Grammar of the Ukrainian language. Syntax. Kyiv: Lybid (in Ukr.).
- Vykhovanets, I., Horodenska, K. (2004). Theoretical morphology of Ukrainian. Kyiv: Pulsary (in Ukr.).
- Herman, K.F. (1972). Paratactic complex sentences with gradational conjunctions. Ukrainska mova i literatura v shkoli, 1, 28 – 30 (in Ukr.).
- Herman, K.F. (1973). Structure-semantic analysis of paratactic complex sentences of modern literary Ukrainian. Chernivtsi (in Ukr.).
- Horodenska, K. (2007). Grammar dictionary of Ukrainian. Conjunctions. Kyiv – Kherson (in Ukr.).
- Horodenska, K. (2008). Analytical tendencies in the development of the conjunctions of Ukrainian. Ridnyi krai, 2, 36 – 43 (in Ukr.).
- Horodenska, K. (2009). Conjunctions realization of semantic-syntactic relations
- in paratactic complex sentences. Naukovi zapysky Vinnytskogo derzhavnogo pedagogichnogo universytetu imeni Mykhaila Kotsubynskogo. Filologiya, 11, 8 – 15. Vinnytsa (in Ukr.).
- Hryshchenko, A.P. (1969). A paratactic complex sentences in modern Ukrainian
- literary language. Kyiv: Naukova dumka (in Ukr.).
- Dudyk, P.S., Prokopchuk, L.V. (2010). Syntax of the Ukrainian language. Kyiv:
- Akademia (in Ukr.).
- Zagnitko, A.P. (2001). Theoretical grammar of the Ukrainian language. Syntax.
- Donetsk: DonNU (in Ukr.).
- Kulyk, B.M. (1961). The course of modern Ukrainian literary language. Part II.
- Syntax. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Bulakhovskyi, L.A. (Ed.). (1951). The course of modern Ukrainian literary language. Vol. II. Syntax. Kyiv: Rad. shkola (in Ukr.).
- Melnychuk, O.S. (1966). Development of the structure of the Slavic sentence. Kyiv: Naukova dumka (in Ukr.).
- Shvedova, N.Yu. (Ed.). (1980). Russian grammar. Vol. II. Syntax. Moskva (in Rus.).
- Slynko, I.I., Huivaniuk, N.V., Kobylianska, M.F. (1994). Syntax of modern Ukrainian: Problem questions. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Spilnyk, T.M. (2004). Gradational relationship in the structure of complex conjunctional constructions of modern Ukrainian language: abstract. dis. … Cand. filol.
- Sciences: 10.02.01. Kharkiv (in Ukr.).
- Spilnyk, T. (2008). Complex sentences of modern Ukrainian literary language with gradational semantic. Verba Magistri: Movoznavstvo. Literaturoznavstvo. Zhurnalistykoznavstvo. Pedagogika. Metodyka: zbirnyk naukovykh prats, prysviachenyi yuvileyu doktora filologichnykh nauk, profesora S.V., Lomakovych. P. 361 – 371. Kharkiv (in Ukr.).
- Bilodid, I.K. (Ed.). (1972). Modern Ukrainian literary language. Syntax. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Hryshchenko, A.P. (Ed.). (1993). Modern Ukrainian literary language. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Shulzhuk, K.F. (2004). Syntax of the Ukrainian language. Kyiv: Akademia (in Ukr.).
- Bauer, J. (1959). Klasifikace souvětí. Jazykovedné štúdie. Bratislava (in Czech Republic).
- Bauer, J. (1960). Vývoj české ho souvětí. Praha (in Czech Republic).
- Bauer, J. (1961). Souřadné souvětí. Kapitoly ze srovná vací mluvnice ruské a české, ІІ. Praha (in Czech Republic).
- Havránek, B., Jedlička, A. (1960). Česká mluvnice. Praha (in Czech Republic).
- Kopečný , Fr. (1962). Zá klady české skladby. Praha (in Czech Republic).
- Trá vníček Fr. (1956). Mluvnice spisovné češtiny, ІІ. Skladba. Praha (in Czech Republic).