Doctor of Philology, Professor, Leading researcher of the Department of History of the Ukrainian Language and Onomastics
Institute of the Ukrainian Language of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
4 Hrushevskyi St., Kyiv 01001, Ukraine
Abstract: The main milestones of the biography of M. Smotrytsky, one of the most striking figures in the Ukrainian history of the beginning of the seventeenth century, are presented. – a talented writer, linguist, humanist, erudite man with a comprehensive European education who has always cared about the fate of his people. The main stages of his education at home and abroad are described. The activity of Meleti Smotrytsky after returning to his native land at teaching work is revealed.
Reasons for why, after returning home, Smotrytsky actively became involved in public polemics – he stood up for the rights of the Ukrainian-Belorussian Orthodox Church inherited from the Commonwealth. In the west and east of Europe there were various peculiarities of the socio-economic and socio-political situation of the church. In the west, the pope and his church community were politically independent and independent. In the east, there was political centralization, and the Patriarch of Constantinople and his church environment were politically independent, dependent on secular authorities. The struggle of the Roman pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople for power over the whole Christian church was ripe. After 1054, the Archdiocese of Constantinople was founded, and subsequently – its elevation as the capital. There was a split of Christians into the Western Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church. Catholicism considered canonical only the Bible which was written in Latin, worship and religious practices in the Catholic cult were performed in Latin or Greek languages, which are unintelligible to most believers. Byzantium also allowed to preach Christianity in their native language. This became one of the important factors why the prince of Greater Moravia Rostislav in the second half of the XI century. decided to lean on an alliance with Byzantium, in which he hoped to find a powerful ally in the fight against the German emperors.
Polemic with detractors of Orthodoxy in the first decade of the XVII century Bula Velmi relevant and popular. The article has been inspired by the words of a Polish Roman Catholic priest, polemicist Petr Skarga, who can’t say the words “I’m my Nicola” according to the right science. Tilki Greek and Latin holy vira expanded and clings to all the light. Slovyanska Mova is not the same as the mother of her own rules, grammar and vocabulary for the weekend. Smotrytsky, like a patriot of Orthodoxy’s, having mused vidredaguvati on such a cast. Win already having collected more robots with a grammatical material, in the folding minds of the struggle of the Orthodox words’yans for the right to mothers I have the right to speak in 1619 in Moscow, I’ve read the book “The grammar is correct” with the help of the words of the коyansk linguistic thought, the basis of church words of the ян yan grammatical science. The article has commented on the low innovative rice “Grammar” by Meletіya Smotrytsky.
After entering into the light and triumphal extension of “Grammar” M. Smotrytsky didn’t even dare to attack the church’s word Movement. The book of M. Smotrytsky became famous for the cultural Slavs of the Slovenian. All of them must be presented to meletіy Smotrytsky as the founder of the great cognition.
Keywords: M. Smotrytsky’s education, Ukrainian-Belarussian Orthodox Church, split of Christians, Catholicism, religious controversy, Orthodoxy patriot, right to one’s own faith and language, innovative features of “Grammar” M. Smotrytsky, founder of national linguistics.