PhD in Philology, Docent of the Department of Ukrainian Language, Bogdan Khmelnytsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 20 Hetmanska str., Melitopol 72300, Ukraine
Abstract: The article deals with the dynamics of lexical and word-forming types of abstracts with suffix -к(а) in the history of the Ukrainian language, considers the productivity of the mentioned formant. It is established that nouns with abstract meaning are the names of concepts that have no real embodiment, indicate the state, feelings, process, quality, character traits, various manifestations of human intelligence, relationships between individuals, peoples, etiquette, are scientific and industrial terms.
Nomina abstracta, formed with the suffix -к(а), functioned already in the Old Slavic Language. The general significance of objective action and the results of human mental and speech activity in the semantic structure of such derivatives have remained leading to this day. Sources of the of the Ancient Russian-Ukrainian language of the ХІ – ХІІІ centuries record a small number of analyzed derivatives (ласка, гадка). However, in the Middle Ukrainain Language of the ХІV–ХVІ centuries the activity of their use was gradually increasing (валка, висилка). There were also desubstantives, in the semantic structure of which there were no indication of diminutive meaning. The number of such derivatives continued to increase in the monuments of the New Ukrainian Language (бійка, вымовка). There were also nomina abstracta, indicating the peculiarities of human behavior, his actions, feelings, and a small group of nouns to denote agricultural actions and processes. At the beginning of the XX century accounted for the most active functioning of new works of abstracts on ‑к(а) because of the influence of historical circumstances of this time (вирубка, відставка, доставка). Occurrence during the ХХ century a significant number of names of materialized actions was also determined by the socio-economic development of society, because a significant number of such nouns denote various production processes and their features (опалубка, плавка). Many abstract names of actions in the Modern Ukrainian language are created from the bases of verbs with the help of confixes with the postpositive component -к(а) (несогласка, похибка). Today, the process of replenishing the composition of abstracts with this formant is not very intensive.
Keywords: a historical word-formation, nomina abstrаcta, lexical and word-forming type, word-forming structure, suffix -к(а).
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