Development of Serbian monolingual lexicography
Journal Ukrainian Language – №2 (70) 2019
Redovni profesor University of Belgrade
Abstract: The Serbian lexicography can be divided into the pre-Vuk period and post-Vuk period. The dividing line presents the Serbian Dictionary by Vuk Stefanovich Karagich, a reformer of the Serbian language. The Serbian Cyrillic pre-Vuk lexicography started to develop in the second part of the 18th century, when the Serbs trying to find a sanctuary from the Turkish terror, in great numbers immigrated to the Hapsburg Monarchy. To be able to adjust to a new environment, they began to compile and publish bilingual dictionaries, namely German-Serbian or Latin-Serbian. The Serbian part of those dictionaries was written in Slavonic-Serbian language, the mixture of the Serbian folk language and Russian folk language and a Serbian and Russian editing of Old-Slavonic language. The influence of the Russian language is explained by the fact that the Serbs in trying to keep the Orthodox faith and Serbian language living in the Hapsburg Monarchy organized Russian schools taught by Russian teachers.
Vuk’s dictionary is the first work written in a pure Serbian folk language. This dictionary is important for the Serbian lexicography, among other things, for the fact that it contains the terminology from the various fields, confirmed by the citations from the Serbian literature. The Vuk’s dictionary later served as a starting point for all later dictionary works. His dictionary was written in reformed Cyrillic alphabet, which places this dictionary among the most important works of all time in the Serbian culture. This is when the modern Serbian language began. The post-Vuk lexicography has undergone two phases – Serbo-Croatian (Yugoslav) and Serbian (Post-Yugoslav). The dividing line presents the last decade of the 20th century, when the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia occurred. This paper gives the basic information on the most important dictionaries, which represent all of the phases in the development of Serbian lexicography. In this paper, the most important Serbian dictionaries are divided into two groups: general and special. More attention is devoted to general dictionaries, but it also lists the special dictionaries as well. The most important lexicographic institution in Serbia is The Institute for Serbian Language within The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The biggest and most important dictionary of Serbian language is currently being made there – The Dictionary of SANU, and the dictionaries such as The Serbian Dictionary of Etymology, as well as The Dictionary of the Church Slavonic Language – Serbian edition. The second important lexicographic institutions in Serbia is the Matica srpska, in Novi Sad.
Keywords: Serbian lexicography, Serbian dictionaries, general dictionaries, special dictionaries, pre-Vuk Serbian lexicography, post-Vuk Serbian lexicography, Serbian language.
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