• info@ukrmova.iul-nasu.org.ua
  • +38 (044)-278-12-09
  • Print ISSN 1682-3540
  • e-ISSN 2707-5249
» Journal Issues » 2017 » Journal Ukrainian Language №3 (63) 2017 » COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS PROJECTS OF THE R2U TEAM: PRESENT STATE AND APPLICATIONS


Journal Ukrainian Language №3 (63) 2017
UDC 811.161.2’33

Vasyl Starko
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor, Doctoral Student, Department of Applied Linguistics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Lutsk

Heading: Researches
Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article discusses a series of non-commercial, open-source projects developed for Ukrainian by the r2u team. The dictionary website r2u.org.ua provides full-text search for a collection of mostly Russian-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Russian dictionaries. It brings back into circulation the dictionaries that were banned by the Soviet government as part of its policy to Russianize the Ukrainian language. The pearl of the collection is the academic Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary edited by Ahatanhel Krymsky and Serhii Yefremov (1924-1933). It was the last top-grade general dictionary published before the launch of the Russianization policy and remains an unparalleled source of proper Ukrainian lexis today.

The dictionary website e2u.org.ua offers a series of modern English-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-English dictionaries. The most prominent ones are the terminological dictionaries in physics and related sciences (by Olha Kocherga and Eugen Meinarovich, over 280,000 headwords), mathematics and informatics (by Eugen Meinarovich and Myroslav Kratko, 43,000 terms), economics (by Anna Shymkiw, 20,000 headwords), and linguistics (by Lada Kolomiiets et al., 9,500 terms). A general English-Ukrainian dictionary is being compiled, one entry at a time, in response to search queries. A large phraseological dictionary is also being added to the website in a piecemeal fashion.

The Large Electronic Dictionary of Ukrainian (VESUM) is a machine-readable POS dictionary. With 316,000 lemmas and over four million generated word forms, it is the biggest of its kind for Ukrainian and has been adopted for full-text search in the Ukrainian-language Wikipedia.

Another project is the Pravopysnyk LanguageTool – an advanced Ukrainian spellchecker which checks also grammar and style (http://languagetool.org/uk/). Finally, the Brown Ukrainian Corpus (BrUK) is a project to build a one-million POS-tagged, lemmatized and disambiguated corpus of modern Ukrainian that can be used, inter alia, to train a Ukrainian POS tagger. All r2u projects are available online, and the corresponding links are provided in the article.

Keywords: computational linguistics, natural language processing, computer lexicography, corpus linguistics, corpus, r2u, electronic dictionary, VESUM, Wikipedia, Pravopysnyk, LanguageTool, Brown Corpus, BrUK.


  1. Karpilovska, Ye.A, Kysliuk, L.P., Klymenko, N.F. etc. (2013). Active Resources of the Contemporary Ukrainian Nomination: An Ideographic Dictionary of New Vocabulary. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  2. Antonenko-Davydovych, B. As we speak. URL: http://yak-my-hovorymo.wikidot.com/
  3. Boiarova, L.H. (2013). Ukrainian terminology in academic Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries (20’s of XX century – beginning of XXI century). Bulletin of Kharkiv National University V.N. Karazin. Philology Series.№ 1048. Vyp. 67. Pp. 136 – 140 (in Ukr.).
  4. Brown Ukrainian Corps. URL: https://github.com/brown-uk/corpus
  5. Great electronic dictionary of Ukrainian language (VESUM). URL: https://github.com/brown-uk/dict_uk
  6. Busel, V.T. (Ed.). (2005). A great explanatory dictionary of modern Ukrainian. Kyiv – Irpin (in Ukr.).
  7. Vyrhan, I.O., Pylynska, M.M. (2000). Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of constant expressions. Kharkiv (in Ukr.).
  8. Vykhovanets, I., Horodenska, K. (2004). Theoretical Morphology of the Ukrainian Language: Academic Grammar of the Ukrainian Language. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  9. Darchuk, N.P. (2008). Computer Linguistics (Automatic Text Processing): A Tutorial. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  10. Karpilovska, Ye.A. (2006). Introduction to Applied Linguistics: Computer Linguistics: A Textbook. Donetsk (in Ukr.).
  11. Karpilovska, Ye.A., Kocherha, O.D., Meinarovych, Ye.V. (2008). Ukrainian scientific language in the academic “Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary” edited by A. Krymsky and S. Yefremov. Bulletin of the National University “Lviv Polytechnic”. Series: Problems of Ukrainian Terminology. Num. 620. P. 110 – 115 (in Ukr.).
  12. Karpilovska, Ye. (2008). Problems of Computer Modeling of Speech Dynamics. Linguistic studios. Coll. Sciences. wash. Num. 17. P. 293 – 297. Donetsk (in Ukr.).
  13. Klymenko, N.F.,  Karpilovska, Ye.A., Kysliuk, L.P. (2008). Dynamic processes in the modern Ukrainian lexicon. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  14. Kobiv, Yu. (2004). Dictionary of Ukrainian scientific and folk names of vascular plants. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  15. Kolomiiets, L.V., Palamarchuk, O.L., Strelchuk, H.P., Shevchenko, M.V. (2013). Ukrainian-English Dictionary of Linguistic Terminology. Kyiv (in Ukr., Eng.).
  16. Ukrainian language corps. URL: http://www.mova.info/corpus.aspx.
  17. Kocherha., Meinarovych, Ye. (2010). English-Ukrainian-English Dictionary of the Scientific Language (Physics and Related Sciences). Part I: English-Ukrainian. Part II: Ukrainian-English. Vinnitsa (in Ukr., Eng.).
  18. Krytska, V.I., Nedozym, T.I., Orlova, L.V., Puzdyrieva, T.K., Romaniuk, Yu.V. (2011). Grammar dictionary of Ukrainian literary language. Word change. Klymenko, N.F. (E). Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  19. Kubaichuk, (2004). Chronology of language events in Ukraine (External history of the Ukrainian language). Kyiv (in Ukr.). URL: http://movahistory.org.ua
  20. Linguistic portal mova.info. URL: http://www.mova.info/
  21. Mandela, (2015). The Long Road to Freedom. Autobiography. Trans. from English. W. Stark. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  22. Meinarovych, Ye., Starko, M. (2010). English-Ukrainian Dictionary of Mathematics and Cybernetics. Kyiv – Irpin (in Ukr., Eng.).
  23. Tyshchenko, O. (Ed.). (2010). New and updated words and meanings: dictionary materials (2002 – 2010). Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  24. Opeida, Y., Shvaika, (2008). Glossary of terms in chemistry. Donetsk (in Ukr.).
  25. Perebyinis, V.I., Sorokin, V.M. (2009). Traditional and computer lexicography. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  26. Pozdran,V. (2017). “Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary” edited by A.Yu. Crymskyi and S.O. Yefremov in Historical-Linguistic Context: Dis. … Cand. philol. Sciences: 10.02.01. 430 p. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  27. Mlodzynskyi, H., Yohanesen, M. (Ed.). (2009). Practical Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary of Proverbs. (Reproduction of ed. 1929). Kyiv (in Ukr., Rus.).
  28. Projects of the lang-uk group. URL: http://lang.org.ua/en/
  29. Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary. T. I: A – J. Ed. V.M. Hantsov, H.K. Holoskevych, M.M. Hrinchenko; Goal. ed. Acad. A.Yu. Crymskyi. Kyiv, 1924; T. II: C – Iss. 1: C – K. Ed. V. Hantsov, H. Holoskevych, M. Hrinchenkova, M. Kalinovych, A. Nikovsky, V. Yaroshenko; Goal. ed. Acad. A. Crymskyi. Kyiv, 1929; T. II: C – N. Iss. 2: L – wink. Edited M. Kalinovych and V. Yaroshenko; Goal. ed. Acad. A. Crymskyi. Kharkiv, 1932. P. 393  724; T. II: C – N. Iss. 3: Soap – nurse. Edited M. Kalinovych and V. Yaroshenko; Goal. ed. Acad. A. Crymskyi. Kharkiv, 1933. P. 725  1056; T. III: O – P. Iss. 1: O – field. Ed. V. Hantsov, H. Holoskevych, M. Hrinchenkova, A. Nikovsky; Goal. ed. Acad. S. Yefremov. Kyiv, 1927; T. III: O – P. Iss. 2: Field – cookie. Ed. V. Hantsov, H. Holoskevich, M. Hrinchenkova, A. Nikovsky; Goal. ed. Acad. S. Yefremov. Kyiv, 1928. P. 337  654 (in Ukr.).
  30. Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary: in 4 vol. (2016). Vol. 1: A – Ed. V. Hantsov, H. Holoskevych, M. Hrinchenkova. Goal. ed. Acad. A. Crymskyi. 12, XIV + 290 p. (Reprint from view. 1924). Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  31. Russian-Ukrainian phraseology dictionary: Phraseology of business language. (1993).  V. Podmogilny, E. Pluzhnik. (Reproduced. Ed. 1927). Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  32. Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries. URL: https://r2u.org.ua/main/dicts
  33. Russu,O. (2016). Prefixive verb term formation in the Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary (1924 – 1933): diss. … Cand. philol. Sciences: 10.02.01. 219 p. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  34. Skalozub, (1933). Dictionary of foreign words, expressions and sayings used in the Ukrainian language. Colomyia (in Ukr.).
  35. Skopnenko, (2008).Principles of lexicographic processing of constant utterances (on the material of “Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary” edited by A. Krymskyi and S. Yefremov and Belarusian dictionaries of the 20 – 30’s of XX century). Lexicographic Bulletin, 17, 31  39 (in Ukr.).
  36. Download dictionaries. URL: http://r2u.org.ua/main/dicts_for_download
  37. “Dictionaries of Ukraine” on-line. Ukrainian Language and Information Foundation of NASU. URL: http://lcorp.ulif.org.ua/dictua/
  38. Starko, (2014). Case data in the study of Ukrainian colors. Ukrainian language, 1, 51 – 60.
  39. Starko,, Cheilytko, N. (2013). Parameterization of the housing as a way to increase its representativeness and balance. Ukrainian linguistics, 43, 87 – 94. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  40. Starko, (2008). “The Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary” (1924 – 1933) and the Ukrainian Academic Dictionary. Scientific Bulletin of Volyn National University named after Lesya Ukrainka, 2, 219 – 224 (in Ukr.).
  41. Starko, (2014). Formation of the Brown Corps of the Ukrainian Language. Linguistic and conceptual pictures of the world, 48, 415  421 (in Ukr.).
  42. Tyshchenko, O.M. (2016). Archive files as a lexical and illustrative base of the “Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary”, ed. A.Yu. Crymskyi and S.O. Yefremov. I. Lexical files: history of creation and repression. Ukrainian language, 2 (58), 44 – 71 (in Ukr.).
  43. Tyshchenko, O.M. (2016). Archive files as a lexical and illustrative base of the “Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary”, ed. A.Yu. Crymskyi and S.O. Yefremov. II. Micro- and macrostructure of archive files. Ukrainian language, 3 (59), 57 – 78 (in Ukr.).
  44. Tyshchenko, O.M. (2015). The lexicographic context of the fourth volume of the Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary, ed. A.Yu. Crymskyi and S.O. Yefremov: conditional playback of the registry. Ukrainian language, 4, 89 – 100 (in Ukr.).
  45. Tyshchenko, (2011). New and actualized words and meanings (vocabulary materials) in the context of modern non-vocalists. Ukrainian language, 1, 55 – 68 (in Ukr.).
  46. Sherekh, Yu. (1951). Essay on Contemporary Ukrainian Literary Language. Munich, (in Ukr.).
  47. Shymkiv A. (2004). The Anglo-Ukrainian Explanatory Dictionary of Economic Vocabulary. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
  48. Francis, W.N., Kučera, H. (1979). Brown Corpus Manual. Providence, Rhode Island. URL: http://icame.uib.no/brown/bcm.html
  49. Starko,  (2013). Ukrainian Colour Concepts for Blue. Slovo. Journal of Slavic Languages and Literatures. Num. 54. P. 150 – 163. URL: http://www.moderna.uu.se/digital Assets/ 591/ c_ 591534-l_1-k_14_starko.pdf.