Journal Ukrainian Language – №3 (71) 2019
PhD, Candidate of Science in Philology, Senior Lecturer at the Ukrainian Language Department, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy
2 Skovorody vul., Kyiv 04070, Ukraine
Abstract: The problem of bilingualism is becoming more and more relevant given the current situation in the state. The article deals with the general sociolinguistic notions of bilingualism. Moreover, the language situation in Ukraine has been characterized. It has been found that multilingualism or bilingualism at the state level is a destructive process for the country.
In general, the usage of languages in military environment as well as in Ukraine is far from being homogenous. In a meantime, due to the surveys, Ukrainian language is native to 73% of ATO participants. This statistics is confirmed in the film “Cyborgs” (2017) by A. Seitablaiev in which two thirds of heroes are Ukrainian speaking. Soldiers’ language behavior as well as Ukrainian-Russian bilingualism has been analyzed based on this movie.
Specifically, the paper is devoted to the lexical-stylistic features of the characters’ speech. The proposed material explains the role of Ukrainian and Russian languages in the developing of servicemen images. It should be mentioned that the main characters use Ukrainian in their daily communication. Despite the fact that there are Russian speaking militaries on Ukrainian side, in the most of cases, Russian is spoken by pro-Russian separatists or officers from Russia Federation who take part in the battle for Donetsk Airport. So, ‘friends’ and ‘foes’, ‘we’ and ‘they’ are divided not only by ideological differences but also by language issues. In the film, surzhyk is used to typify characters (in case of “Staryi”) and describe ironic attitude to some questions (in case of “Serpen`”).
Furthermore, particular attention has been paid to the military lexicon and jargon as a means of forming the military’s language image. Modern Ukrainian military slang tends to create its own vocabulary. There are special jargon lexical items that describe battles for Donets airport, for instance, a way of life, to deport, hotel etc.
Keywords: language situation, bilingualism, language behavior, surzhyk, military vocabulary.
- Azarova, Ye, Horchyns’ka, L. V. Causes and consequences of bilingualism in Ukraine. URL: https://ir.lib.vntu.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/ 123456789/23450/azarova%d0%a22018.PDF?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (Accessed 18.04.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Militaries and volunteers. Why should we support #ЗаконПроМову5670. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59j875x9I1c (Accessed 03.2017) (in Ukr.).
- Horchyns’ka, Ode to defenders of the Donetsk airport. URL: https://life.pravda.com.ua/columns/2017/12/6/227817/ (Accessed 10.04.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Huzins’kyj, D. Heroes do not die. URL: https://web.archive.org/ web/20180628034552/https://wocup.ga/kiborgy-geroyi-ne-vmyrayut/ (Accessed 10.05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Ukrainian State Film Agency: “Cyborgs” ahead of all other films. Тексти. org.ua (Accessed 12.2017) (in Ukr.).
- Law of Ukraine dated October 4, 2018, No. 2587-VIII. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/main/ n20181016 (Accessed 04.2019) (in Ukr.).
- “Yedyna kraina” – “Edynaia strana” – Bir devlet [United country]. Poroshenko congratulates Ukraine on New Year. Obozrevatel. 01.01.2015. URL: https://www.obozrevatel.com/politics/20139-novogodnee-pozdravlenie-poroshenko.htm (Accessed 05.2019) (in Rus.).
- The index of the effectiveness of Russian propaganda. Kyiv International Institute of Sociology. URL: https://www.kiis.com.ua/?lang=ukr&cat= reports&id=510 (Accessed 29.04.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Cyborgs. Ukrainian Film Academy Awards URL: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt07691572/awards (Accessed 21.05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Consolidation of Ukrainian society: ways, challenges, perspectives. Information and analytical materials for the professional discussion on December 16, 2016. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Kulyk, About Ukraine and the war. “Cybords” is the best war film in the history of Ukrainian cinema. URL: http://texty.org.ua/pg/article/editorial/ read/81514/Pro_Ukrajinu_i_vijnu_Kiborgy__najkrashhyj (Accessed 21.06. 2019) (in Ukr.).
- Larysa Masenko: Official bilingualism does not unite the country, but contributes to its collapse [interview with prof. L. Masenko / recorded by O. Gorobets]. The Language Policy Portal of June 20, 2015. URL: http://language-policy.info/2015/06/larysa-masenko-ofitsijna-dvomovnist-ne-ob-jednuje-krajinu-a-spryyaje-jiji-rozpadu/ (Accessed 23.06.2019). (in Ukr.).
- Mylenko, V. “Cyborgs”. Impression of the person who went to the cinema. URL: https://vmylenko.com/2017/12/09/kiborhy-2/ (Accessed 22.05. 2019) (in Ukr.).
- Myshovs’kyj, M. (2017). What is wrong with the film “Cyborgs”. Youtube Channel Credo. December 19. URL: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=59j875x9I1c (Accessed 03.2017) (in Ukr.).
- Mironyuk, In Kharkiv, director of the film “Cyborgs” watched a film with veterans ATO. URL: http://www.slk.kh.ua/amp/news/suspilstvo/rezhiser-kiborgiv-podivsya-film-razom-z-xarkivskimi-veteranami-ato.html (Accessed 26.04.2018) (in Ukr.).
- We need a language border with Russia. Contemporary linguistic politics in Ukraine through the eyes of the sociolinguist. Interview with prof. L. Masenko. Recorded by M. Orel. Linguistic Portal. June 20, 2015. URL: http://language-policy.info/2014/12/nam-potriben-movnyj-kordon-iz-rosijeyu-suchasna-movna-polityka-ukrajini-ochyma-sotsiolinhvista/ (Accessed 05. 2019) (in Ukr.).
- Neschadym, M. (2003). Military education of Ukraine: history, theory, methodology, practice. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- The Resolution of the International Forum on Ukrainian Language Support was published. The Language Policy Portal. July 22, 2015. URL: http://language-policy.info/2015/07/oprylyudneno-rezolyutsiyu-mizhnarodnoho-forumu-na-pidtrymku-ukrajinskoji-movy/ (Accessed 03.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Osnach, S. Language component of the hybrid war. Vox populi. Ukrainian magazine for intelligent and indifferent people. URL: http://www.vox-populi.com.ua/rubriki/politika/movnaskladovagibridnoievijniavtorosnacsergij (Accessed 19.03.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Identity features of individual linguistic and national groups (2016). Razumkov Center. National Security and Defense, 3 – 4, 84 – 102. URL: http://razumkov.org.ua/uploads/article/NSD161_cat.pdf (Accessed 06.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Paschenko, A. (2018) “Cyborgs” by A. Seitablaiev: weapon and music. Cinema-Theater, URL: http://www.ktm.ukma.edu.ua/show_content.php? id=2136 (Accessed 04.06.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Penzij, A. The war without household conversations: “Cyborgs” by Akhtem Seitablaiev. 11.12.2017. URL: https://ukr.lb.ua/culture/2017/ 12/11/384477_viyna_bez_pobutovih_rozmov.html (Accessed 19.06.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Pohribnyj, A. (2009). Conversations about long-suffering things, or If we learned how we have to… Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Poroshenko: Ukraine is now struggling to bury the Soviet Union in the heads. URL: https://www.unian.ua/politics/1658607-poroshenko-ukrajina-zaraz-voyue-schob-pohovati-radyanskiy-soyuz-v-golovah-u-dekogo.html (Accessed 04.2017) (in Ukr.).
- Potapenko, Ia. (2015). The concept of the “Great Victory” as anti-Ukrainian ideologeme of Kremlin propaganda: an attempt of complex interdisciplinary analysis. Scientific notes on Ukrainian history. Collection of scientific articles, 36, 112 – 121 (in Ukr.).
- Rudoms’kyj, R. Is there a language problem in the Ukrainian army? Depo.ua. 12.2016. URL: https://www.unian.ua/politics/1658607-poroshenko-ukrajina-zaraz-voyue-schob-pohovati-radyanskiy-soyuz-v-golovah-u-dekogo.html (Accessed 13.05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Stel’makh, How Ukrainians become “UKRopamy”. Radio Liberty. 07.08.2014. URL: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/26519406.html (Accessed 12.05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Stepanenko, V. The film “Cyborgs” wins the audience’s sympathy. Ukrainian View. 12.2017. URL: http://ukrpohliad.org/culture/film-kiborgy-zavojovuye-sympatiyi-glyadachiv.html (Accessed 18.05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Taniuk, L. Language in people’s life. URL: http://ukrlife.org/main/ tribuna/confa_1tanuk.htm (Accessed 05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Tkachenko, O. (1993). The Prerequisites and Factors In the Formation of Slavic Peoples’ Linguistic Stability. Slavic Linguistics. Р. 34 – 41. Kyiv (in Ukr.).
- Tkachenko, O. (1990). The Problem of Linguistic Stability and Its Sources. Linguistics, 4, 3 – 10 (in Ukr.).
- Trymbach, S. Here is what you did with the country. Day. 12.2017. URL: https://day.kyiv.ua/uk/article/kultura/os-shcho-vy-zrobyly-z-krayinoyu (Accessed 21.05.2019) (in Ukr.).
- Shevchuk, Yu. (2015). Language schizophrenia. Brustrury (in Ukr.).
- Ukrainian language is our security. URL: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=psOzTfwVXkA (Accessed 02.04.17) (in Ukr.).
- An Ukrainian military man after having been in captive in Ilovajs’k and comma switched to Ukrainian. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=s05MhApJ6GM (Accessed 15.03.17) (in Ukr.).
- Bilanjuk, L. (2010). Language in the balance: The politics of non-accommodation on bilingual Ukrainian-Russian television shows. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 210, 105 – 133.
- Csernicskó, I., Mate, R. (2017). Bilingualism in Ukraine: Value or Challenge. Darnioji daugiakalbystė (Sustainable Multilingualism), 10, 14 – 35. URL: https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/sm.2017.10.issue-1/sm-2017-0001/sm-2017-0001.pdf (Accessed 10.04.18).
- Korostelina, K. (2013). Mapping national identity narratives in Ukraine. Nationalities Papers, 41(2), 293 – 315 (in Ukr.).
- Kulyk, V. (2014). What is Russian in Ukraine? Popular beliefs regarding the social roles of the language. Ryazanova-Clarke, L. (Е). The Russian Language Outside the Nation. Edinburgh, 117 – 140 (in Ukr.).
- Pylynskyi, J. (2015). The Problem of Bilingualism in Ukraine: The Historical and International Context. Stepanenko, V., Pylynskyi, J. (Е). Ukraine after the Euromaidan. Challenges and Hopes. Bern et al., 219 – 229. URL: http://lib.iitta.gov.ua/710089/1/selection.pdf (Accessed 02.04.18)